Both cited Beethoven as inspiration and justification. This dispute was summarized as the conflict between followers of Johannes Brahms and Richard Wagner: Brahms was considered the pinnacle of absolute music, without text or external references, and Wagner, the preacher of poetry as a provider of harmonic and melodic shape to the music. The causes that led to this controversy are complex. One of these causes was, undoubtedly, the increasing importance of romantic poetry, as well as a growing interest in songs that could be interpreted at concerts or at home. Also mentioned the very nature of the concerts, which went from presentations from a wide variety of works, to be much more specialized, which increased the demand for instrumental works with greater expressiveness and specificity. Find some notable examples of extra-musical inspiration at the Symphony Faust, Dante Symphony, and several symphonic poems Liszt; Tchaikovsky Manfred Symphony; the first Symphony of Gustav Mahler; and the Carnival of the animals of Camille Saint-Saens.
On the other hand, composers as Schubert used melodies of songs in more extensive works, and others, such as Liszt, transcribed opera arias or songs in purely orchestral works. It is said that many composers of romanticism, from the second half of the 19th century, wrote nationalist music, which had some special connection with your country. This was manifested in various ways. The themes of Mikhail Glinka’s operas, for example, are specifically Russians, Bedrich Smetana and Antonin Dvorak used rhythms and themes from Czech folk songs and dances. At the end of the 19th century, Jean Sibelius wrote music based on the Finnish Epic (the Kalevala), Kullervo and his piece Finland became a symbol of Finnish nationalism. We described, that composers such as Hector Berlioz they orchestrated their works in a way never before heard, giving new prominence to wind instruments. The size of the standard Orchestra was increased, and included instruments such as the piccolo and English horn, which before were used very occasionally.